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Android Camera Tutorial

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1- Android Camera

Camera is a device that allows you to take pictures or record a video. In Android there are 2 ways that you work with the camera.

Method 1:

On the Android operating system,  application to work with the camera is available , your application can call the application via an implicit Intent  to require a certain action with the camera, such ask  Camera to open and take pictures, or ask Camera to record a video, and then the results returned.

Method 2:

Android provides you the API to work directly with the camera.

With Android Level < 21 you can work directly with the camera via android.hardware.Camera class, but this class is Deprecated  and is no longer used in Android Level >= 21, recommend camera2 API use.
In this document I will guide you to use implicit intent to call into the Camera application is available in the system for opening camera to take a picture or record a video.
You can see "Android Camera2 API" at:
  • TODO Link!

2- Overview

On the Android operating system, it is available on application to work with the camera, on your application you can create an implicit Intent to call this application, request for camera to take a picture or record a video.
// Create an implicit intent, for image capture.
Intent intent = new Intent(MediaStore.ACTION_IMAGE_CAPTURE);

int REQUEST_ID_IMAGE_CAPTURE = 100;

// Start camera and wait for the results.
this.startActivityForResult(intent, REQUEST_ID_IMAGE_CAPTURE);
Intent type for Camera:
Intent Type Description
ACTION_IMAGE_CAPTURE_SECURE

It returns the image captured from the camera , when the device is secured

ACTION_VIDEO_CAPTURE

It calls the existing video application in android to capture video

EXTRA_SCREEN_ORIENTATION

It is used to set the orientation of the screen to vertical or landscape

EXTRA_FULL_SCREEN

It is used to control the user interface of the ViewImage

INTENT_ACTION_VIDEO_CAMERA

This intent is used to launch the camera in the video mode

EXTRA_SIZE_LIMIT

It is used to specify the size limit of video or image capture size

In case you want to save photos or video just recorded on the device you need to configure the permissions to read and write data to the device. Configure on AndroidManifest.xml.
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
With Android Level> = 23, you need to use the code to ask the user for permission to read and write data to the device.
// With Android Level >= 23, you have to ask the user
// for permission to read/write data on the device.
if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {

    // Check if we have read/write permission
    // Kiểm tra quyền đọc/ghi dữ liệu vào thiết bị lưu trữ ngoài.
    int readPermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this,
                                   Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE);
    int writePermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this,
                                   Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE);

   if (writePermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED ||
           readPermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
       // If don't have permission so prompt the user.
       this.requestPermissions(
               new String[]{Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE,
                       Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE},
               REQUEST_ID_READ_WRITE_PERMISSION
       );
   }
}
Handling when users reply to the request.
// When you have the request results
@Override
public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode,
                                   String permissions[], int[] grantResults) {

    super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
    //
    switch (requestCode) {
        case REQUEST_ID_READ_WRITE_PERMISSION: {

            // Note: If request is cancelled, the result arrays are empty.
            // Permissions granted (read/write).
            if (grantResults.length > 1
                    && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED
                    && grantResults[1] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {

                Toast.makeText(this, "Permission granted!", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

                this.captureVideo();

            }
            // Cancelled or denied.
            else {
                Toast.makeText(this, "Permission denied!", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            }
            break;
        }
    }
}

3- Example

Create project named AndroidCameraDemo:
  • File > New > New Project > Empty Activity
    • Name: AndroidCameraDemo
    • Package name: org.o7planning.androidcamerademo
    • Language: Java
Add Configuration allows read and write data on the device.
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
AndroidManifest.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="org.o7planning.androidcamerademo">

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_launcher_round"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>

</manifest>
Interface design
If you are interested in the steps to design this application interface, see the appendix at the end of the article.
activity_main.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    tools:context=".MainActivity">

    <ImageView
        android:id="@+id/imageView"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="175dp"
        android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
        android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
        android:layout_marginTop="21dp"
        android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
        android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent"
        app:srcCompat="@drawable/ic_launcher_foreground"
        tools:ignore="VectorDrawableCompat" />

    <VideoView
        android:id="@+id/videoView"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="175dp"
        android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
        android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
        android:layout_marginTop="16dp"
        android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
        android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/imageView" />

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_marginStart="16dp"
        android:layout_marginLeft="16dp"
        android:layout_marginTop="8dp"
        android:layout_marginEnd="16dp"
        android:layout_marginRight="16dp"
        android:orientation="horizontal"
        app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toBottomOf="@+id/videoView">

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_image"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_weight="0"
            android:text="Capture Image" />

        <Button
            android:id="@+id/button_video"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_weight="0"
            android:text="Capture Video" />
    </LinearLayout>
</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>
MainActivity.java
package org.o7planning.androidcamerademo;

import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity;
import androidx.core.app.ActivityCompat;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.Manifest;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.content.pm.PackageManager;
import android.graphics.Bitmap;
import android.net.Uri;
import android.os.Environment;
import android.os.StrictMode;
import android.provider.MediaStore;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.ImageView;
import android.widget.Toast;
import android.widget.VideoView;
import java.io.File;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private Button buttonImage;
    private Button buttonVideo;

    private VideoView videoView;
    private ImageView imageView;

    private static final int REQUEST_ID_READ_WRITE_PERMISSION = 99;
    private static final int REQUEST_ID_IMAGE_CAPTURE = 100;
    private static final int REQUEST_ID_VIDEO_CAPTURE = 101;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        this.buttonImage = (Button) this.findViewById(R.id.button_image);
        this.buttonVideo = (Button) this.findViewById(R.id.button_video);
        this.videoView = (VideoView) this.findViewById(R.id.videoView);
        this.imageView = (ImageView) this.findViewById(R.id.imageView);

        this.buttonImage.setOnClickListener(new Button.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                captureImage();
            }
        });

        this.buttonVideo.setOnClickListener(new Button.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                askPermissionAndCaptureVideo();
            }
        });
    }

    private void captureImage() {
        // Create an implicit intent, for image capture.
        Intent intent = new Intent(MediaStore.ACTION_IMAGE_CAPTURE);

        // Start camera and wait for the results.
        this.startActivityForResult(intent, REQUEST_ID_IMAGE_CAPTURE);
    }

    private void askPermissionAndCaptureVideo() {

        // With Android Level >= 23, you have to ask the user
        // for permission to read/write data on the device.
        if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {

            // Check if we have read/write permission
            int readPermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this,
                    Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE);
            int writePermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this,
                    Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE);

            if (writePermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED ||
                    readPermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                // If don't have permission so prompt the user.
                this.requestPermissions(
                        new String[]{Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE,
                                Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE},
                        REQUEST_ID_READ_WRITE_PERMISSION
                );
                return;
            }
        }
        this.captureVideo();
    }

    private void captureVideo() {
        try {
            // Create an implicit intent, for video capture.
            Intent intent = new Intent(MediaStore.ACTION_VIDEO_CAPTURE);

            // The external storage directory.
            File dir = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory();
            if (!dir.exists()) {
                dir.mkdirs();
            }
            // file:///storage/emulated/0/myvideo.mp4
            String savePath = dir.getAbsolutePath() + "/myvideo.mp4";
            File videoFile = new File(savePath);
            Uri videoUri = Uri.fromFile(videoFile);

            // Specify where to save video files.
            intent.putExtra(MediaStore.EXTRA_OUTPUT, videoUri);
            intent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION);

            // ================================================================================================
            // To Fix Error (**)
            // ================================================================================================

            StrictMode.VmPolicy.Builder builder = new StrictMode.VmPolicy.Builder();
            StrictMode.setVmPolicy(builder.build());

            // ================================================================================================
            // You may get an Error (**) If your app targets API 24+
            // "android.os.FileUriExposedException: file:///storage/emulated/0/xxx exposed beyond app through.."
            //  Explanation: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38200282
            // ================================================================================================

            // Start camera and wait for the results.
            this.startActivityForResult(intent, REQUEST_ID_VIDEO_CAPTURE); // (**)

        } catch(Exception e)  {
            Toast.makeText(this, "Error capture video: " +e.getMessage(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }


    // When you have the request results
    @Override
    public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode,
                                           String permissions[], int[] grantResults) {

        super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
        //
        switch (requestCode) {
            case REQUEST_ID_READ_WRITE_PERMISSION: {

                // Note: If request is cancelled, the result arrays are empty.
                // Permissions granted (read/write).
                if (grantResults.length > 1
                        && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED
                        && grantResults[1] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {

                    Toast.makeText(this, "Permission granted!", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

                    this.captureVideo();

                }
                // Cancelled or denied.
                else {
                    Toast.makeText(this, "Permission denied!", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
                }
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    // When results returned
    @Override
    protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
        super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);

        if (requestCode == REQUEST_ID_IMAGE_CAPTURE) {
            if (resultCode == RESULT_OK) {
                Bitmap bp = (Bitmap) data.getExtras().get("data");
                this.imageView.setImageBitmap(bp);
            } else if (resultCode == RESULT_CANCELED) {
                Toast.makeText(this, "Action canceled", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            } else {
                Toast.makeText(this, "Action Failed", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            }
        } else if (requestCode == REQUEST_ID_VIDEO_CAPTURE) {
            if (resultCode == RESULT_OK) {
                Uri videoUri = data.getData();
                Log.i("MyLog", "Video saved to: " + videoUri);
                Toast.makeText(this, "Video saved to:\n" +
                        videoUri, Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
                this.videoView.setVideoURI(videoUri);
                this.videoView.start();
            } else if (resultCode == RESULT_CANCELED) {
                Toast.makeText(this, "Action Cancelled.",
                        Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            } else {
                Toast.makeText(this, "Action Failed",
                        Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            }
        }
    }

}
The app will save video to SD Card of the Emulator, so make sure you have SD Card set up.
OK, now you can run the application. Here, I run the app on simulation device with simulation camera.

4- Appendix: Interface design

Add ImageView, VideoView to the interface.
Add Button(s) to the interface.
Set ID, Text for components on the interface.

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