CSS visibility Tutorial

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1- CSS Visibility

CSS Visibility is used to hide or display an element without changing document Layout. It can also hide a row or a row group, or a column or a column group of a table. 
/* Example: */

visibility: visible|hidden|collapse|initial|inherit;
The possible values of CSS Visibility:
Value Description
visible (default), "Visible" elements are default.
hidden Make an element invisible, but it still takes up space.
collapse This value is used for only the elements <thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <tr>, <col>, <colgroup> (of a table) to hide this element, and release space occupied by it. If you use this value for other elements, it will work as similarly as the "hidden" value does.
initial Set this property to default value.
inherit Its value will be inherited from the parent element.
CSS {display:none} also hides an element, but it releases the space which it occupies, so it can change document layout.

2- CSS {visibility:hidden}

CSS {visibility:hidden} makes an element invisible, but it doesn't release the space which the element occupies, so it doesn't change document layout.
visibility-hidden-example.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
   <head>
      <title>CSS {visibility:hidden}</title>
      <meta charset="UTF-8"/>
      <script>
          function showHideImage(event)  {
             var myImage = document.getElementById("myImage");
             var visibilityValue = myImage.style.visibility;

             if(visibilityValue !== "hidden") {
                 myImage.style.visibility = "hidden";
             } else {
                 myImage.style.visibility = "visible";
             }
          }
      </script>
   </head>
   <body>
       <h2>CSS {visibility:hidden}</h2>

       <button onClick="showHideImage(event)">Show/Hide Image</button>

       <div style="padding:5px; margin-top:10px; background:#eee;">
           <img src="../images/flower.png" id= "myImage"/>

           Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans,
           Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin,
           on the Moon on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.
           Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar
           surface 6 hours later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC.
       </div>

   </body>
</html>

3- CSS {visibility:collapse}

CSS {visibility:collapse} is used for only one of the elements  <thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <tr>, <col>, <colgroup> (of a table) to hide this element, and release the space occupied by it. If you use this value for other elements, it will work as similarly as the " hidden" value does.

<thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <tr>

CSS {visibility: hidden | collapse} works well with the Rows and Row groups of a table, specifically, the elements  <thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <tr>.
visibility-collapse-row-example.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
   <head>
      <title>CSS {visibility:collapse}</title>
      <meta charset="UTF-8"/>
      <style>
         table {
            border: 1px solid;
            margin-top: 10px;
         }
         th, td {
            border: 1px solid;
            padding: 5px;
         }
         #myRow {
            background: lightgreen;
         }
      </style>

      <script>
          function setVisibilityValue(newValue)  {
             var myRow = document.getElementById("myRow");
             myRow.style.visibility = newValue;

             var myNote = document.getElementById("myNote");
             myNote.innerHTML = "{visibility: " + newValue+"}";
          }
      </script>
   </head>
   <body>
       <h2>CSS {visibility:visible | hidden | collapse}</h2>

       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('visible')">Visible</button>
       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('hidden')">Hidden</button>
       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('collapse')">Collapse</button>

        <p style="color:blue;">
           Works for elements: TR, THEAD, TBODY, TFOOT.
        </p>

       <p id="myNote" style="color:red; font-style:italic;">
           {visibility:visible}
       </p>

       <table>
          <thead>
              <tr>
                  <th>No</th>
                  <th>First Name</th>
                  <th>Last Name</th>
                </tr>
            </thead>
            <tbody>
              <tr id="myRow">
                  <td>1</td>
                  <td>Hillary</td>
                  <td>Clinton</td>
                </tr>
                <tr>
                    <td>2</td>
                    <td>Donald</td>
                    <td>Trump</td>
                  </tr>
            </tbody>
       </table>

   </body>
</html>

<colgroup>, <col>

CSS {visibility: collapse} can work well with the Columns and Column groups of a table in some browsers. Other values will be ignored, or treated as {visibility: visible}
<col>, <colgroup> CSS {visibility:hidden} CSS {visibility:collapse}
Firefox   16x16
Chrome    
visibility-collapse-col-example.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
   <head>
      <title>CSS {visibility:collapse}</title>
      <meta charset="UTF-8"/>
      <style>
         table {
            border: 1px solid;
            margin-top: 10px;
         }
         th, td {
            border: 1px solid;
            padding: 5px;
         }
      </style>

      <script>
          function setVisibilityValue(newValue)  {
             var myColGroup = document.getElementById("myColGroup");
             myColGroup.style.visibility = newValue;

             var myNote = document.getElementById("myNote");
             myNote.innerHTML = "{visibility: " + newValue+"}";
          }
      </script>
   </head>
   <body>
       <h2>CSS {visibility:visible | hidden | collapse}</h2>

       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('visible')">Visible</button>
       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('hidden')">Hidden</button>
       <button onClick="setVisibilityValue('collapse')">Collapse</button>

       <h3>COL, COLGROUP Elements</h3>

       <p id="myNote" style="color:red; font-style:italic;">
           {visibility:visible}
       </p>

       <table>
        <colgroup>
          <col style="background-color:lightgreen">
        </colgroup>
        <colgroup id="myColGroup">
          <col span="2" style="background-color:red">
          <col style="background-color:yellow">
        </colgroup>
        <tr>
          <th>No</th>
          <th>ISBN</th>
          <th>Title</th>
          <th>Price</th>
          <th>Description</th>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>1</td>
          <td>3476896</td>
          <td>My first HTML</td>
          <td>$53</td>
          <td>..</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>2</td>
          <td>5869207</td>
          <td>My first CSS</td>
          <td>$49</td>
          <td>..</td>
        </tr>
      </table>


     <p style="color:red;">
        CSS {visibility:collapse} works with COL, COLGROUP elements in Firefox (Not Chrome).<br/>
        CSS {visibility:hidden} does not work  with COL, COLGROUP elements in Firefox and Chrome.
     </p>

   </body>
</html>

Show/Hide Columns?

If you want to hide one or more columns of a table, it is best to hide all the cells of those columns, which is supported by all browsers.
hide-table-col-example.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
   <head>
      <title>CSS {visibility:collapse}</title>
      <meta charset="UTF-8"/>
      <style>
         table {
            border: 1px solid;
            margin-top: 10px;
         }
         th, td {
            border: 1px solid;
            padding: 5px;
         }
         .my-cell {
           background-color: lightgreen;
         }
         .cell-hide {
            display: none;
         }
      </style>
      <script src="hide-table-col-example.js"></script>
   </head>
   <body>
       <h2>Show/Hide Table Columns</h2>

       <button onClick="showOrHideCells(false)">Hide</button>
       <button onClick="showOrHideCells(true)">Show</button>

       <table>
        <tr>
          <th>No</th>
          <th class="my-cell">ISBN</th>
          <th>Title</th>
          <th>Price</th>
          <th>Description</th>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>1</td>
          <td class="my-cell">3476896</td>
          <td>My first HTML</td>
          <td>$53</td>
          <td>..</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
          <td>2</td>
          <td class="my-cell">5869207</td>
          <td>My first CSS</td>
          <td>$49</td>
          <td>..</td>
        </tr>
      </table>
   </body>
</html>
hide-table-col-example.js
function showOrHideCells(show)  {  
    var elements = document.getElementsByClassName("my-cell");
    var copiedElements = [... elements];

    for(var i=0; i< copiedElements.length; i++) {
        if(show) {
            copiedElements[i].classList.remove("cell-hide");
        } else {
            copiedElements[i].classList.add("cell-hide");
        }
    }
}
Below is a more complex example provided by the community, hiding / showing a table column:

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