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Understanding Event Loop in NodeJS

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1- NodeJS Event Loop Overview

NodeJS is a Single Thread application, which operates on a platform written by C++. ​​​​​​​This platform uses multi-thread to carry out  tasks at the same time.
The following figure illustrates requests sent to the  NodeJS server from the users side.
Each request from the users side is treated to be an event by the  NodeJS. They is placed into an  Event Queue. The  NodeJS uses  FIFO (First In First Out) principle, which means that the requests coming first will be handled first.

Event Loop

As an endless loop, it passes the requests to the thread Pool and each request is registered a Callback function.  When a request is finished handling, the corresponding  Callback function will be called to be executed.

Thread Pool

Being a program by   C++ language, it supports multi threads. Therefore, herein, requests will be handled on different threads. The  NodeJS also supports Multi Processes. This means that they can be executed on different cores.
When a request is finished handling. The  NodeJS will call the Callback function (registered for this request) to execute it.


First basic conclusion: If each connection to Server opens a Thread . It will take very much memory. This has been proven when you compare Apache and Nginx (two Web Servers deploying PHP applications). The Apache uses much more memory than the Nginx.
The NodeJS is similar to the  Nginx in the fact that they use only a Single thread to receive connections from an user, and treat each request of the user as an event.
Second basic conclusion:  I/O activities cost many resources of the system, therefore, the  NodeJS manages use of  I/O activities strictly.  So you need to use only  Callback when you execute the duties related to  I/O.
Basically, many things in the  NodeJS are running  in parallel on different threads, but they are managed directly by the NodeJS, for example, Thread Pool. What you write is run on a single thread.

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