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Undertanding Duck Typing in ECMAScript

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1- What is Duck Typing?

Before giving a definition of "Duck Typing", I want to talk to you about the concept of Interface in the programming language.
Interface is a concept found in several programming languages, such as Java, CSharp, ... An interface will declare its list of methods. These methods have no content (no body). ). This Implements interface must have all methods declared in the Interface with full content. (Note: I'm not referring to abstract classes here).
Thus, Interface and Class are two different concepts.Interface defines a standard that implements must comply with.
The languages such as Ruby, ECMAScript have no Interface concept explicitly. They have only Class concept. But "Duck Typing" can be a way for you to create something like the Interface in the ECMAScript.
Duck Typing?
Duck Typing refers to a duck test program. You will test something, if it goes like a duck, and fly like a duck, it is duck.
Humorously, if you test an airplane, you find that it goes like a duck, it flies like a duck, so it's concluded to be a duck.
The disadvantage of Duck Typing:
Duck Typing is used in many programming languages, for example, Ruby, ECMAScript,.. and it is really useful but sometimes it creates unwanted acts in application because the rules of Duck Typing is too simple and can result in wrong conclusions. You can understand this warning more in examples. 

2- Example with Duck Typing

OK, ECMAScript has no Interface concept. Below I have a Duck class. It has the 2 method such as walk() & fly().

class Duck  {

  fly()  {
     console.log("Duck fly");
  }

  walk()  {
    console.log("Duck walk");
  }

}
The Airplane class also has all methods like the Duck class. According to the Duck Typing rule, you can say that Airplane belongs to the Duck type.

class Airplane  {

  fly()  {
     console.log("Airplane fly");
  }

  walk()  {
    console.log("Airplane walk");
  }

  shoot(target)  {
    console.log("Airplane shoot " + target);
  }

}
The Cat class has walk() method but it has no fly() method. According to the Duck Typing rule, you can conclude that the Cat doesn't belong to the Duck ​​​​​​​type.

class Cat  {

  walk() {
    console.log("Cat walk");
  }
}
See full example:
duck-typing-example1.js


class Duck  {

  fly()  {
     console.log("Duck fly");
  }

  walk()  {
    console.log("Duck walk");
  }

}

class Airplane  {

  fly()  {
     console.log("Airplane fly");
  }

  walk()  {
    console.log("Airplane walk");
  }

  shoot(target)  {
    console.log("Airplane shoot " + target);
  }

}

class Cat  {

  walk() {
    console.log("Cat walk");
  }
}


let duck1 = new Duck();
let airplane1 = new Airplane();
let cat1 = new Cat();

function checkDuck(testObj) {
   if(typeof testObj.fly == "function" && typeof testObj.walk == "function" ) {
       return true;
   }
   return false;
}

// Array
let testArray = [duck1, airplane1, cat1];

for( let i = 0; i < testArray.length; i++) {
   let testObj = testArray[i];

   if( checkDuck(testObj) )  {
     testObj.fly();
   }
}
 
Output:

Duck fly
Airplane fly
Example 2:
duck-typing-example2.js


var duck = {
    type: "bird",
    cry: function duck_cry(what) {
        console.log(what + " quack-quack!");
    },
    color: "black"
};

var someAnimal = {
    type: "bird",
    cry: function animal_cry(what) {
        console.log(what + " whoof-whoof!");
    },
    eyes: "yellow"
};

function check(who) {
    if ((who.type == "bird") && (typeof who.cry == "function")) {
        who.cry("I look like a duck!\n");
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

check(duck);  // true
check(someAnimal);  // true
Output:

I look like a duck!
 quack-quack
I lock like a duck!
 whoof-whoof

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