Spring Boot, Spring JDBC and Spring Transaction Tutorial

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1- Objective of the Post

This document is based on:
  • Spring Boot 2.x

  • Spring JDBC

  • Eclipse 4.7 (Oxygen)

In this post, I will guide you for creating a Spring Boot project and work with a database ( Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, Postgres,..) using Spring JDBC & Spring Transaction. The matters that will be discussed in this post include:
  1. Declare the libraries necessary to be able to work with a database.
  2. Configure Spring Boot to be able to connect to a database.
  3. Manipulate with a database using the Spring JDBC.
  4. Use Spring Transaction and explain the operating principle of Spring Transaction.

2- Prepare a database

MySQL / SQL Server
-- Create table
create table BANK_ACCOUNT
(
  ID        BIGINT not null,
  FULL_NAME VARCHAR(128) not null,
  BALANCE   DOUBLE not null
) ;
--  
alter table BANK_ACCOUNT
  add constraint BANK_ACCOUNT_PK primary key (ID);


Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (1, 'Tom', 1000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (2, 'Jerry', 2000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (3, 'Donald', 3000);

commit;
Oracle
-- Create table
create table BANK_ACCOUNT
(
  ID        NUMBER(19) not null,
  FULL_NAME VARCHAR2(128) not null,
  BALANCE   NUMBER not null
) ;
--  
alter table BANK_ACCOUNT
  add constraint BANK_ACCOUNT_PK primary key (ID);


Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (1, 'Tom', 1000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (2, 'Jerry', 2000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (3, 'Donald', 3000);

commit;
PostGres
Create table Bank_Account (
   ID Bigint not null,
   Full_Name Varchar(128) not null,
   Balance real not null,
   CONSTRAINT Bank_Account_pk PRIMARY KEY (ID)
);

Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (1, 'Tom', 1000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (2, 'Jerry', 2000);
Insert into Bank_Account(ID, Full_Name, Balance) values (3, 'Donald', 3000);

3- Create a Spring Boot project

On the  Eclipse, create a  Spring Boot project
Enter:
  • Name: SpringBootJDBC
  • Group: org.o7planning
  • Artifact: SpringBootJDBC
  • Description: Spring Boot + Spring JDBC + Spring Transaction
  • Package: org.o7planning.sbjdbc
Select the technologies and libraries to be used:
  • JDBC
  • MySQL
  • PostgrsSQL
  • SQL Server
  • Web
  • Thymeleaf

4- Configure pom.xml

If you work with the  Oracle database, you need to declare the following libraries on the pom.xml:
* Oracle *
<dependencies>
    .....

     <dependency>
        <groupId>com.oracle</groupId>
        <artifactId>ojdbc6</artifactId>
        <version>11.2.0.3</version>
    </dependency>
    
    .....
</dependencies>

<repositories>
        ....

    <!-- Repository for ORACLE JDBC Driver -->
    <repository>
        <id>codelds</id>
        <url>https://code.lds.org/nexus/content/groups/main-repo</url>
    </repository>
    
    .....
</repositories>
If you connect to the SQL Service database, you can use either JTDS library or   Mssql-Jdbc library:
* SQL Server *

<dependencies>
       .....

    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.microsoft.sqlserver</groupId>
        <artifactId>mssql-jdbc</artifactId>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
    </dependency>
    
    <dependency>
        <groupId>net.sourceforge.jtds</groupId>
        <artifactId>jtds</artifactId>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
    </dependency>

     .....
</dependencies>
The full content of the  pom.xml file:
pom.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
      http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
      
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>org.o7planning</groupId>
    <artifactId>SpringBootJDBC</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>

    <name>SpringBootJDBC</name>
    <description>Spring Boot + JDBC + Spring Transaction</description>

    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.0.0.M5</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>
        
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
            <artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- SQL Server - Mssql-Jdbc driver -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.microsoft.sqlserver</groupId>
            <artifactId>mssql-jdbc</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- SQL Server - JTDS driver -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>net.sourceforge.jtds</groupId>
            <artifactId>jtds</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Oracle Driver -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.oracle</groupId>
            <artifactId>ojdbc6</artifactId>
            <version>11.2.0.3</version>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.threeten/threetenbp -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.threeten</groupId>
            <artifactId>threetenbp</artifactId>
            <version>1.3.6</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        
    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

    <repositories>
    
        <!-- Repository for ORACLE JDBC Driver -->
        <repository>
            <id>codelds</id>
            <url>https://code.lds.org/nexus/content/groups/main-repo</url>
        </repository>
        
        <repository>
            <id>spring-snapshots</id>
            <name>Spring Snapshots</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/snapshot</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>true</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

    <pluginRepositories>
        <pluginRepository>
            <id>spring-snapshots</id>
            <name>Spring Snapshots</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/snapshot</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>true</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </pluginRepository>
        <pluginRepository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </pluginRepository>
    </pluginRepositories>


</project>
 

5- Configure DataSource

For Spring can connect to a Database, you need to configure necessary parameters in the  application.properties file.
application.properties (MySQL)
# ===============================
# DATABASE
# ===============================

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydatabase
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=12345
 
application.properites (Sql Server + Mssql-Jdbc)
# ===============================
# DATABASE
# ===============================

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=net.sourceforge.jtds.jdbc.Driver

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://localhost:1433/testdb;instance=SQLEXPRESS
spring.datasource.username=sa
spring.datasource.password=12345
 
application.properites (Sql Server + JTDS)
# ===============================
# DATABASE
# ===============================

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:sqlserver://localhost:1433/SQLEXPRESS;databaseName=testdb
spring.datasource.username=sa
spring.datasource.password=12345
 
application.properties (Oracle)
# ===============================
# DATABASE
# ===============================

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:db12c
spring.datasource.username=Test
spring.datasource.password=12345
 
application.properties (PostGres)
# ===============================
# DATABASE
# ===============================

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=org.postgresql.Driver

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb
spring.datasource.username=postgres
spring.datasource.password=12345
 
See more:
Note: By default Spring Boot will automatically configures Spring JDBC, and creates Spring BEANs related to the Spring JDBC. These automatic configurations of the  Spring Boot include:
  1. DataSourceAutoConfiguration
  2. DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration

6- Model, Mapper, Form, DAO

In the  Spring, a class representing for the data of a record, obtained from query statement is called model class. The  BankAccountInfo class is a model one.
BankAccountInfo.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.model;

public class BankAccountInfo {

    private Long id;
    private String fullName;
    private double balance;

    public BankAccountInfo(Long id, String fullName, double balance) {
        super();
        this.id = id;
        this.fullName = fullName;
        this.balance = balance;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getFullName() {
        return fullName;
    }

    public void setFullName(String fullName) {
        this.fullName = fullName;
    }

    public double getBalance() {
        return balance;
    }

    public void setBalance(double balance) {
        this.balance = balance;
    }
    
}
A class used for mapping corresponding to 1-1 between 1 column in query statement and 1 field in the model class is called a  mapper class. BankAccountMapper is a such class.
See more:
BankAccountMapper.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.mapper;

import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;

import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.model.BankAccountInfo;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.RowMapper;

public class BankAccountMapper implements RowMapper<BankAccountInfo> {

    public static final String BASE_SQL //
            = "Select ba.Id, ba.Full_Name, ba.Balance From Bank_Account ba ";

    @Override
    public BankAccountInfo mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {

        Long id = rs.getLong("Id");
        String fullName = rs.getString("Full_Name");
        double balance = rs.getDouble("Balance");

        return new BankAccountInfo(id, fullName, balance);
    }

}
BankAccountDAO.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.dao;

import java.util.List;

import javax.sql.DataSource;

import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.exception.BankTransactionException;
import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.mapper.BankAccountMapper;
import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.model.BankAccountInfo;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.dao.EmptyResultDataAccessException;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.support.JdbcDaoSupport;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Propagation;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

@Repository
@Transactional
public class BankAccountDAO extends JdbcDaoSupport {

	@Autowired
	public BankAccountDAO(DataSource dataSource) {
		this.setDataSource(dataSource);
	}

	public List<BankAccountInfo> getBankAccounts() {
		// Select ba.Id, ba.Full_Name, ba.Balance From Bank_Account ba
		String sql = BankAccountMapper.BASE_SQL;

		Object[] params = new Object[] {};
		BankAccountMapper mapper = new BankAccountMapper();
		List<BankAccountInfo> list = this.getJdbcTemplate().query(sql, params, mapper);

		return list;
	}

	public BankAccountInfo findBankAccount(Long id) {
		// Select ba.Id, ba.Full_Name, ba.Balance From Bank_Account ba
		// Where ba.Id = ?
		String sql = BankAccountMapper.BASE_SQL + " where ba.Id = ? ";

		Object[] params = new Object[] { id };
		BankAccountMapper mapper = new BankAccountMapper();
		try {
			BankAccountInfo bankAccount = this.getJdbcTemplate().queryForObject(sql, params, mapper);
			return bankAccount;
		} catch (EmptyResultDataAccessException e) {
			return null;
		}
	}

	// MANDATORY: Transaction must be created before.
	@Transactional(propagation = Propagation.MANDATORY)
	public void addAmount(Long id, double amount) throws BankTransactionException {
		BankAccountInfo accountInfo = this.findBankAccount(id);
		if (accountInfo == null) {
			throw new BankTransactionException("Account not found " + id);
		}
		double newBalance = accountInfo.getBalance() + amount;
		if (accountInfo.getBalance() + amount < 0) {
			throw new BankTransactionException(
					"The money in the account '" + id + "' is not enough (" + accountInfo.getBalance() + ")");
		}
		accountInfo.setBalance(newBalance);
		// Update to DB
		String sqlUpdate = "Update Bank_Account set Balance = ? where Id = ?";
		this.getJdbcTemplate().update(sqlUpdate, accountInfo.getBalance(), accountInfo.getId());
	}

	// Do not catch BankTransactionException in this method.
	@Transactional(propagation = Propagation.REQUIRES_NEW, rollbackFor = BankTransactionException.class)
	public void sendMoney(Long fromAccountId, Long toAccountId, double amount) throws BankTransactionException {

		addAmount(toAccountId, amount);
		addAmount(fromAccountId, -amount);
	}
}
BankTransactionException.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.exception;

public class BankTransactionException extends Exception {

    
    private static final long serialVersionUID = -3128681006635769411L;
    
    public BankTransactionException(String message) {
        super(message);
    }
    
}
SendMoneyForm.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.form;

public class SendMoneyForm {
    
    private Long fromAccountId;
    private Long toAccountId;
    private Double amount;
 
    public SendMoneyForm() {
 
    }
 
    public SendMoneyForm(Long fromAccountId, Long toAccountId, Double amount) {
        this.fromAccountId = fromAccountId;
        this.toAccountId = toAccountId;
        this.amount = amount;
    }
 
    public Long getFromAccountId() {
        return fromAccountId;
    }
 
    public void setFromAccountId(Long fromAccountId) {
        this.fromAccountId = fromAccountId;
    }
 
    public Long getToAccountId() {
        return toAccountId;
    }
 
    public void setToAccountId(Long toAccountId) {
        this.toAccountId = toAccountId;
    }
 
    public Double getAmount() {
        return amount;
    }
 
    public void setAmount(Double amount) {
        this.amount = amount;
    }
    
}

Explain the operation mechanism of Spring Transaction:

In this example, I simulate a bank transaction. A account sends to B account an amount of  700$. Thus, two actions will be created in the database: 
  1. Add 700$ to B account.
  2. Subtract 700$ from A account.

If the first action succeeds (add $ 700 to B account), but the second action fails for a reason, the bank will suffer a damage.
Therefore, it needs to manage the transaction to ensure that if an action fails, the data will rollback the original state (before transaction). The transaction is considered successful when all actions are successful.
Use  the @Transactional(rollbackFor = BankTransactionException.class) to annotate on a method to tell the  "Spring Transaction" "let's apply the  AOP to this method".
@Transactional(propagation = Propagation.REQUIRES_NEW,
                         rollbackFor = BankTransactionException.class)
public void sendMoney(Long fromAccountId, Long toAccountId,
                       double amount) throws BankTransactionException {

    addAmount(toAccountId, amount);
    addAmount(fromAccountId, -amount);
}
The  Spring Transaction applies the  Spring AOP to your method, which is like changing  thecode of the method, add an exception to the code snippet and call Rollback to transact when the exception occurs, then it rethrows the exception out of the method. All are the same as the following illustration:

7- Controller

MainController.java
package org.o7planning.sbjdbc.controller;

import java.util.List;

import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.dao.BankAccountDAO;
import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.exception.BankTransactionException;
import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.form.SendMoneyForm;
import org.o7planning.sbjdbc.model.BankAccountInfo;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;

@Controller
public class MainController {

    @Autowired
    private BankAccountDAO bankAccountDAO;

    @RequestMapping(value = "/", method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String showBankAccounts(Model model) {
        List<BankAccountInfo> list = bankAccountDAO.getBankAccounts();

        model.addAttribute("accountInfos", list);

        return "accountsPage";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/sendMoney", method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String viewSendMoneyPage(Model model) {

        SendMoneyForm form = new SendMoneyForm(1L, 2L, 700d);

        model.addAttribute("sendMoneyForm", form);

        return "sendMoneyPage";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/sendMoney", method = RequestMethod.POST)
    public String processSendMoney(Model model, SendMoneyForm sendMoneyForm) {

        System.out.println("Send Money::" + sendMoneyForm.getAmount());

        try {
            bankAccountDAO.sendMoney(sendMoneyForm.getFromAccountId(), //
                    sendMoneyForm.getToAccountId(), //
                    sendMoneyForm.getAmount());
        } catch (BankTransactionException e) {
            model.addAttribute("errorMessage", "Error: " + e.getMessage());
            return "/sendMoneyPage";
        }
        return "redirect:/";
    }

}

8- Thymeleaf Template

_menu.html
<div xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org"
     style="border: 1px solid #ccc;padding:5px;margin-bottom:20px;">

  <a th:href="@{/}">Accounts</a>

     | &nbsp;

   <a th:href="@{/sendMoney}">Send Money</a>  
  

</div>
accountsPage.html
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
<title>Bank</title>

<style>
th, td {
    padding: 5px;
}
</style>

</head>

<body>
    <!-- Include _menu.html -->
    <th:block th:include="/_menu"></th:block>

    <h2>Accounts</h2>

    <table border="1">
        <tr>
            <th>ID</th>
            <th>Full Name</th>
            <th>Balance</th>
        </tr>
        <tr th:each="accountInfo : ${accountInfos}">
            <td th:utext="${accountInfo.id}">..</td>
            <td th:utext="${accountInfo.fullName}">..</td>
            <td th:utext="${accountInfo.balance}">..</td>
        </tr>

    </table>
</body>
</html>

 
sendMoneyPage.html
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
   <head>
      <title>Bank</title>
   </head>
  
   <body>      
      <!-- Include _menu.html -->
      <th:block th:include="/_menu"></th:block>
      
      <h2>Send Money</h2>
      <ul>
         <li>1 - Tom</li>
         <li>2 - Jerry</li>
         <li>3 - Donald</li>
      </ul>
      
      <div th:if="${errorMessage!=null}"
           style="color:red;font-style:italic" th:utext="${errorMessage}">..</div>
      
      <form th:action="@{/sendMoney}" th:object="${sendMoneyForm}" method="POST">
         <table>

           <tr>
              <td>From Bank Account Id</td>
              <td><input type="text" th:field="*{fromAccountId}"/></td>
           </tr>
           <tr>
              <td>To Bank Account Id</td>
              <td><input type="text" th:field="*{toAccountId}"/></td>
           </tr>
            <tr>
              <td>Amount</td>
              <td><input type="text" th:field="*{amount}" /></td>
           </tr>          
           <tr>
              <td>&nbsp;</td>
              <td><input type="submit" value="Send"/></td>
           </tr>      
         </table>      
      </form>
      
   </body>
</html>
 

9- Run the application

On  Eclipse, run your application.

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