Simple CRUD example with Java RESTful Web Service

1- The objective of the example

In the post, I give you a simple example of RESTful Web Service with the functions as Create + Read + Update + Delete (CRUD).
The techniques used:
  • Jersey RESTful API

  • JAXB

JAXB (Java Architecture for XML Binding) is open source Java API , it was officially incorporated into the Java Standard edition (JSE) from version 1.6.

JAXB that transforms Java objects into XML and vice versa. You can see the instructions about JAXB here:
In RESTful web service with Jersey, JAXB is the default XML-Binding used to convert a Java object into XML and vice versa.
Convert List to XML
In RESTful web service with Jersey, MOXy is the default JSON-Binding used to convert a Java object into JSON and vice versa.
REST services will convert Java Objects into JSON and vice versa automatically. You do not have to attach any Annotation to "model" classes. 

2- Create Maven Project

In Eclipse select:
  • File/New/Other..
Make sure that your Project uses Java >= 1.6 because the JAXB libary has been already integrated into Java since version 1.6.
Project Properties/Project Facet:

3- Declare Maven & web.xml

Declare JERSEY servlet in web.xml:
web.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
    xmlns:web="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
    http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
    version="3.0">

    <display-name>RESTful CRUD Example</display-name>

    <servlet>
        <servlet-name>jerseyServlet</servlet-name>
        <servlet-class>com.sun.jersey.spi.container.servlet.ServletContainer</servlet-class>
        <init-param>
            <param-name>com.sun.jersey.config.property.packages</param-name>
            <param-value>org.o7planning.restfulcrud</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> 
    </servlet>
    <servlet-mapping>
        <servlet-name>jerseyServlet</servlet-name>
        <url-pattern>/rest/*</url-pattern>
    </servlet-mapping>


</web-app>
pom.xml
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
  http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
 
 
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>org.o7planning</groupId>
  <artifactId>RESTfulCRUD</artifactId>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
  <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <name>RESTfulCRUD Maven Webapp</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

    <dependencies>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>



        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet/javax.servlet-api -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>3.1.0</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/asm/asm -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>asm</groupId>
            <artifactId>asm</artifactId>
            <version>3.3.1</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.sun.jersey/jersey-bundle -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-bundle</artifactId>
            <version>1.19.2</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.json/json -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.json</groupId>
            <artifactId>json</artifactId>
            <version>20160810</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.sun.jersey/jersey-server -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-server</artifactId>
            <version>1.19.2</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.sun.jersey/jersey-core -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-core</artifactId>
            <version>1.19.2</version>
        </dependency>


        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.codehaus.jackson/jackson-mapper-asl -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
            <artifactId>jackson-mapper-asl</artifactId>
            <version>1.9.13</version>
        </dependency>


    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <finalName>RESTfulCRUD</finalName>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.tomcat.maven</groupId>
                <artifactId>tomcat7-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.2</version>
                <configuration>
                    <path>/RESTfulCRUD</path>
                    <port>8080</port>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>

        </plugins>
    </build>


</project>

4- Web service classes

EmployeeDAO.java
package org.o7planning.restfulcrud.dao;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import org.o7planning.restfulcrud.model.Employee;

public class EmployeeDAO {

    private static final Map<String, Employee> empMap = new HashMap<String, Employee>();

    static {
        initEmps();
    }

    private static void initEmps() {
        Employee emp1 = new Employee("E01", "Smith", "Clerk");
        Employee emp2 = new Employee("E02", "Allen", "Salesman");
        Employee emp3 = new Employee("E03", "Jones", "Manager");

        empMap.put(emp1.getEmpNo(), emp1);
        empMap.put(emp2.getEmpNo(), emp2);
        empMap.put(emp3.getEmpNo(), emp3);
    }

    public static Employee getEmployee(String empNo) {
        return empMap.get(empNo);
    }

    public static Employee addEmployee(Employee emp) {
        empMap.put(emp.getEmpNo(), emp);
        return emp;
    }

    public static Employee updateEmployee(Employee emp) {
        empMap.put(emp.getEmpNo(), emp);
        return emp;
    }

    public static void deleteEmployee(String empNo) {
        empMap.remove(empNo);
    }

    public static List<Employee> getAllEmployees() {
        Collection<Employee> c = empMap.values();
        List<Employee> list = new ArrayList<Employee>();
        list.addAll(c);
        return list;
    }
    
    List<Employee> list;

}
Employee.java
package org.o7planning.restfulcrud.model;

import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlAccessType;
import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlAccessorType;
import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlRootElement;

@XmlRootElement(name = "employee")
@XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.FIELD)
public class Employee {

    private String empNo;
    private String empName;
    private String position;

    // This default constructor is required if there are other constructors.
    public Employee() {

    }

    public Employee(String empNo, String empName, String position) {
        this.empNo = empNo;
        this.empName = empName;
        this.position = position;
    }

    public String getEmpNo() {
        return empNo;
    }

    public void setEmpNo(String empNo) {
        this.empNo = empNo;
    }

    public String getEmpName() {
        return empName;
    }

    public void setEmpName(String empName) {
        this.empName = empName;
    }

    public String getPosition() {
        return position;
    }

    public void setPosition(String position) {
        this.position = position;
    }

}
Employee Service is a RESTful web service, which supports both XML and JSON formats.
EmployeeService.java
package org.o7planning.restfulcrud.service;

import java.util.List;

import javax.ws.rs.DELETE;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.POST;
import javax.ws.rs.PUT;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.PathParam;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

import org.o7planning.restfulcrud.dao.EmployeeDAO;
import org.o7planning.restfulcrud.model.Employee;

@Path("/employees")
public class EmployeeService {

    // URI:
    // /contextPath/servletPath/employees
    @GET
    @Produces({ MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON, MediaType.APPLICATION_XML })
    public List<Employee> getEmployees_JSON() {
        List<Employee> listOfCountries = EmployeeDAO.getAllEmployees();
        return listOfCountries;
    }

    // URI:
    // /contextPath/servletPath/employees/{empNo}
    @GET
    @Path("/{empNo}")
    @Produces({ MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON, MediaType.APPLICATION_XML })
    public Employee getEmployee(@PathParam("empNo") String empNo) {
        return EmployeeDAO.getEmployee(empNo);
    }

    // URI:
    // /contextPath/servletPath/employees
    @POST
    @Produces({ MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON, MediaType.APPLICATION_XML })
    public Employee addEmployee(Employee emp) {
        return EmployeeDAO.addEmployee(emp);
    }

    // URI:
    // /contextPath/servletPath/employees
    @PUT
    @Produces({ MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON, MediaType.APPLICATION_XML })
    public Employee updateEmployee(Employee emp) {
        return EmployeeDAO.updateEmployee(emp);
    }

    @DELETE
    @Path("/{empNo}")
    @Produces({ MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON, MediaType.APPLICATION_XML })
    public void deleteEmployee(@PathParam("empNo") String empNo) {
        EmployeeDAO.deleteEmployee(empNo);
    }

}

 
URLs related to CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) including:
Action URI + Data (XML hoặc JSON)
Create
(@POST)
/contextPath/servletPath/employees

{
"empNo":"E05",
"empName":"Martin",
"position":"Salesman"
}


<employee>
  <empNo>E05</empNo>
  <empName>Martin</empName>
  <position>Salesman</position>
</employee>

 
Read
(@GET)
/contextPath/servletPath/employees

/contextPath/servletPath/employees/{empNo}
Update
(@PUT)
/contextPath/servletPath/employees

{
"empNo":"E01",
"empName":"Smith 2",
"position":"Cleck"
}


<employee>
  <empNo>E01</empNo>
  <empName>Smith 2</empName>
  <position>Clerk</position>
</employee>

 
Delete
(@DELETE)
/contextPath/servletPath/employees/{empNo}

5- Configure to run applications

6- Test application

Run the following URL in your browser:
You need to use the 'Advanced REST Client' to be able to test the RESTful web service.
See more RESTClient & Advanced REST Client:
Create Employee with Advanced RESTClient.